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Marla Stone

Professor, History

A specialist in questions of dictatorship and genocide in the modern era, Stone's work emphasizes the relationship among culture, politics, and the state in the 20th century.


Education: B.A., Pomona College; M.A., Ph.D., Princeton University

Marla Stone is professor of Modern European history at Occidental College. Her scholarship focuses on the history of Fascism and Nazism; she has published and lectured widely on the cultural politics of Fascist Italy and the memory of the Holocaust. Her work also addresses the relationship among the Fascist state, cultural production, and artists and architects. Her current book, The Enemy: The Politics and Propaganda of Anti-communism in Italy, analyzes the character of Italian anti-communism and the impact upon Italian political culture of a multi-faceted, multi-valenced mobilization of fear and hatred of an internal/external political enemy during Italy's traumatic twentieth century. Previous books include The Patron State: Culture and Politics in Fascist Italy (Princeton University Press, 1998), winner of the Marraro Prize of the Society of Italian Historical Studies; When the Wall Came Down (Routledge, 1992), edited with Harold James; and The Fascist Revolution in Italy: A Brief History With Documents (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2012). Her work on Fascist art and politics, Italian political culture, and anti-communism has appeared in numerous anthologies and journals, including The Journal of Modern Italian Studies, The Journal of Contemporary History, Constellations, and The Journal of Hate Studies. Professor Stone has been a fellow at the American Academy in Rome, the Shelby Cullom Davis Center for Historical Studies at Princeton University, and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.

Jump to: Appointments | Fellowships, Grants & Awards | Publications | Administrative Experience | Human Rights/Civil Liberties Work | Professional Activities | Invited Lectures | Conference Papers & Panels | Courses | Affiliations & Memberships


Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA,
Professor of History    Spring 2006 – Present
Associate Professor of History    Spring 2004 – Spring 2006
Department Chair, Associate Professor of History    Spring 1999 – Fall 2003
Assistant Professor of History    Spring 1994 – Spring 1999

Princeton University, Princeton, NJ                                          
Lecturer in European History    Fall 1990 – Summer 1993
Assistant in Instruction    Spring 1986 – Fall 1989

University of Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Professor    July 1996, July 1998, July 2000

Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA
Visiting Assistant Professor    Fall 1992

Fellowships, Grants & Awards

Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 2011/2012

Fellow, Shelby Cullom Davis Center for Historical Studies, Princeton University, Fall/Winter, 2007

University of Freiburg Faculty Fellow, European-American Relations in the Wake of 9/11, June 12 – 22, 2004

Lilly Foundation Course Development Grant, Occidental College, Fall 2003 and Fall 2005

Visiting Capstone Professor, Pitzer College in Parma, Italy, May 2000

Visiting Scholar, Havens Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, March 2000

Howard R. Marraro Prize for Best Book in Italian History, 1999

Hillberg Seminar for Professors of the Holocaust, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, June 1999

Fellow, Italian Academy, Columbia University, Winter/Spring 1998

Rome Prize Fellowship in the History of Art, Mellon Postdoctoral Grant, American Academy in Rome, 1995 – 1996

Senior Fellow, Wolfsonian Foundation, Miami, Florida, Summer 1995

Best Unpublished Manuscript, Society for Italian Historical Studies, 1991

Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation Research Grant, 1989 and 1991

Princeton University Graduate Fellowships, 1984 – 1988

Princeton University Italian Studies Research Grant, Summer 1986 and 1988



The Enemy: The Politics and Propaganda of Anti-communism in Italy (in progress).

The Fascist Revolution, The Bedford Series in History and Culture, Bedford/St. Martins, 2012.

The Patron State: Culture and Politics in Fascist Italy, Princeton University Press, 1998.

When the Wall Came Down: Responses to German Reunification, Marla S. Stone and Harold James, eds., Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1992.

Articles & Book Chapters

“Italian Fascism’s Soviet Enemy and the Propaganda of Hate, 1941–1943,” Journal of Hate Studies: Hate and Political Discourse, Vol. 10, 2012.

“Race, Faith and Family: Depicting the Enemy in Fascist Italy” in Fears Past, Michael Laffan and Max Weiss, eds., Princeton University Press, 2012.

“The Art of War: The Exhibition of Italian Soldier-Artists,” Artistes et parties. Esthetique et politique, 1900 – 1945,  Les presses du reel, Paris, France 2010.

“Potere e spiritualità: La Mostra degli artisti italiani in armi del 1942,” Memoria e ricerca, Vol. 33, April 2010.

“What Have We Learned from Culture: The Turn to Culture in Fascist Historical Studies,” ¨, Mikkel Bolt Rasmussen and Jacob Wamberg, eds., Editions Tuscalanum, 2010.

“The Changing Face of the Enemy,” Constellations, Vol. 15, No. 3, September 2008.

“A Fascist Theme Park,” Visual Sense: A Cultural Reader, Elizabeth Edwards and Kaushik Bhaumik eds., Berg, 2008.

“Primo Levi, The Truce, and the Politics of Holocaust Representation,” The Legacy of Primo Levi, Stanislao Pugliese, ed., Palgrave/Macmillan, 2005.

“La Biennale di Venezia,” “Mostre artistiche,” “Mostra della rivoluzione fascista,” “18BL” -- entries in Il fascismo: Un dizionario critico, Victoria de Grazia and Sergio Luzzatto, eds., Giulio Einaudi: Turin, 2003.

"When Memory Makes Policy: Bosnia, Kosovo and the Holocaust," New England Journal of History, Vol. 5, No. 1, Winter 2003.

“The Last Film Festival: The Venice Biennale Goes to War,” (Re)viewing Fascism: Fascism and Film, Jacqueline Reich and Piero Garofalo, eds., Indiana University Press, 2002.

“A Flexible Rome: Fascism and the Cult of Romanità, Roman Presences: Receptions of Rome in European Culture 1789-1945, Catherine Edwards, ed., Cambridge University Press, 1999.

“Challenging Cultural Categories: The Transformation of the Venice Biennale Under Fascism,” Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1999.

“The Left and Kosovo,” co-authored with Josh Wick, Tikkun, July/August 1999.

“Kosovo: A Round Table,” Los Angeles Weekly, May 7, 1999.

“Making Official Culture: State Patronage in Fascist Italy” Fascist Visions, Mark Antliff and Matthew Affron, eds., Princeton University Press, 1997.

“Bosnia’s Untenable Peace,” Tikkun, March/April 1996.

“Mussolini’s French Connection: The Sternhell Debate Redux,” Radical History Review, Spring 1996.

“The Defeated in Mostar,” Il Manifesto, December 20, 1995.

“The Politics of the Dead,” Tikkun, May/June 1995.

“Staging Fascism: The Show of the Fascist Revolution,” Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 28, No. 2, April 1993.

“Nationalism and Identity in Former East Germany,” Tikkun, November/December 1992.


“Walls Between the Wars”, review of Romy Golan, Muralnomad:The Paradox of Wall Painting, Art Journal, Vol. 71, no. 1, Spring 2012.

Adam Hochschild, To End All Wars, The Los Angeles Times, July 3, 2011

Steven Ricci, Fascism in Cinema, European History Quarterly, 41 (1), 2011

Michael Hitchcock, The Bitter Road to Freedom, H-Diplo-net, November, 2011.

Megan Stack, Every Man in this Village is a Liar, The Los Angeles Times, June 20, 2010.

Roger Griffin, Fascism and Modernism, Modernism and Modernity, Volume 16, Number 2,  2009.

Claudia Lazzaro and Roger Crum, eds., Donatello Among the Blackshirts: History and Modernity in the Visual Culture of Fascist Italy, American Historical Review, Vol. 110, 2005.

Antonio Costa-Pinto, The Blue Shirts: Portuguese Fascists and the New State, Journal of Modern History, Vol. 75, No. 3, September 2003.

Rossana Bossaglia, L’arte nella cultura italiana del Novecento, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2002.

Richard Bosworth, The Italian Dictatorship, American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 10, June 2000.

Holocaust Infatuation, Peter Novick, The Holocaust in American Life, Tikkun, September/October 1999.

Reading Between the Lines in Schindler’s List, Tikkun, November/December 1998.

Mabel Berezin, Making the Fascist Self and Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi, Fascist Spectacle, Journal of Modern Italian History, Vol. 3, No. 2, Fall 1998.

Gianni Isola, Cari amici lontani e vicini, Journal of Modern History, Vol. 69, No. 4, December 1997.

Ester DaCosta Meyer, The Work of Antonio Sant’Elia, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 56, No. 3, September 1997.

Art and Power, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 55, No. 4, December 1996

David Kertzer, Sacrificed for Honor, Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1995.

Kitsch as Kitsch Can, The Nation, August 12/19, 1991

Administrative Experience

Faculty Advisor to the National Awards and Fellowships Office, Occidental College, 2008 –2011.

Chair, Search Committee for a Historian of the Middle East, Occidental College, 2008 – 2009.

Faculty Advisor to the Study Abroad Office, Occidental College, 2003 – 2006.

Department Chair, Department of History, Occidental College, 2000 – 2003.

Lily Foundation Grant Committee, 2000 – 2003

Chair, Search Committee for a Historian of Early America, Occidental College,  1998 – 1999.

Chair, Intellectual Life Committee, Occidental College, 1997 – 1999.

Human Rights/Civil Liberties Work

Board Member, American Civil Liberties Union, Southern California, 2005  – Present.

Committee Chair, Religion and the Constitution Committee, Board Committee of the American Civil Liberties Union, Southern California, 2008 – present.

Faculty Member, University of Tuzla, Bosnia International Summer University, July 1996, 1998, and 2000.

Election Supervisor, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Bosnia-Herzegovina, September 1997.

Participant, Aspen Institute, Seminar on Reconstruction and Reconciliation in the Former Yugoslavia, Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, June 1998.

Co-founder and Executive Board Member, Jews Against Genocide, 1994 – 2000.

Television Commentator on the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War for KCAL, Channel 9 and Fox 11 in Los Angeles and the Fox Cable News Network in New York, 1994, 1995 and 1999.

Professional Activities

Executive Board of the Society of Italian Historical Studies, 2012 – Present.

Conference Committee, Council for European Studies, 2009 – 2010.

Program Committee Chair , Society of Italian Historical Studies, 2006 and 2009.

Juror, Los Angeles Times Book Prize in History, 2008 – 2010.

Juror, George Louis Beer Book Prize of the American Historical Association for European International  History, 2009 – 2011.

Juror, Howard R. Marraro Prize of the Society of Italian Historical Studies, 2010 - 2013.

Manuscript reviewer for The Journal of Contemporary European History, Signs, The Journal of Modern Italian Studies, The Journal of Contemporary History, The Journal of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, The Journal of Urban History, Cambridge University Press, Stanford University Press, University of Toronto Press, Macgraw/Hill, Routledge, and Palgrave-MacMillan.

Grant reviewer for the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of Learned Societies and the Wolfsonian Foundation.

Invited Lectures (Selected)

“Fascist Italy’s Communist Enemy and the Politics of Hate,” American University School of Law, September 27, 2012.

“Historians Look Ahead,” Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavorial Sciences, October 12, 2011

“An American Perspective on 1848: Margaret Fuller and the Roman Revolution,” National Endowment for the Humanities, Rome, December 4, 2011.

“The Art of War: The Exhibition of Italian Soldier-Artists,” City University of New York, October 28, 2011.

“The Communist in the Fascist Imaginary: From Defeated Internal Enemy to Global Threat,” Columbia Seminar in Modern Italian Studies, April 3, 2009.

“Race, Faith, and Family: Depicting the Enemy in Fascist Italy,” Davis Center for Historical Studies, Princeton University, November 29, 2007.

“The Hegemony of Culture: The Culturalist Turn in Fascist Historical Studies,” University of Michigan,  Ann Arbor, April 27, 2007.

The Multiple Faces of Fascist Modernism, School of the Visual Arts, New York, October 19, 2006.

Di Razza Ebraica,” Respondent, Symposium on Fascism, Jews, and Intellectuals, UCLA Center for Jewish Studies, March 4, 2006.

“When Memory Shapes Policy: Bosnia Through the Lens of the Holocaust,” Bellarmine Forum on Violence and Society, Loyola Marymount University, November 10, 2004.

“Fascism and the Cult of Romanità,” National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar, American Academy in Rome, Rome, Italy, July 5, 2004.

“Primo Levi, Roberto Benigni, and the Politics of Holocaust Representation,” California Consortium on Italian Studies, University of California, Los Angeles, March 10, 2003.

Authors’ panel on (Re)viewing Fascism, Casa Italiana, New York University, May 8, 2002.

“The Venice Biennale Goes to War: Gender, War and Film,” New York Area Europeanists Colloquium, Fordham University, November 10, 2000.

Colloquium on Peter Novick’s The Holocaust in American Life, Department of Jewish Studies, University of California, Los Angeles, January 25, 2000.

“The Past in the Present,” European Fascism Symposium, Trinity College, Hartford, CT, October 16, 1999.

“Kosovo: The Meanings of Ethnic Cleansing,” University of California, Irvine, May 11, 1999.

“Kosovo, Bosnia and the Holocaust: The Power of Historical Analogy,” Jewish Studies Lecture Series, University of California, Los Angeles, May 10, 1999.

“The Patron State,” European Studies Colloquium, Pitzer College, Claremont, CA, March 25, 1999.

“The Politics of Italian Fascist Spectacle,” American Academy in Rome, New York, NY, April 9, 1998.

“Making Peace Last: Postwar Reconstruction in Bosnia,” DePauw University, Greencastle, IN, Convocation Series, February 19, 1998.

“Why Bosnia Matters: War, Genocide and the American Brokered Peace,” Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN, International Affairs Speakers Series, March 3, 1997.

Hitler's Willing Executioners: Perspectives on the Goldhagen Controversy, European University Institute, Florence, Italy, May 30, 1996.

“Memorie della Shoah e identità collettiva statunitense,” Fondazione Luigi Einaudi, Turin, Italy, May 24, 1996.

“Sfidi ai limiti della cultura,” Università di Torino, Department of History, Turin, Italy, May 23, 1996.

“The Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution,” Dutch Institute of Rome, Rome, Italy,  May 15, 1996.

“Challenging the Social Boundaries of Culture,” American Academy in Rome, Rome, Italy, May 9, 1996.

“Late Fascist Culture and the Turn to Spectacle,” Syracuse University in Florence, February 26, 1996.

“Bosnia After Dayton,” American Academy in Rome, Rome, Italy, January 3, 1996.

“Fascism and Visual Culture,” Wolfsonian Museum, Miami, FL, June 27, 1995.

“Hegemonic Pluralism: State Patronage of the Fine Arts in Fascist Italy,” Getty Center for the History of Art, Los Angeles, CA, October 14, 1994.

“Myth and the Bosnian War” (a series of talks at Los Angeles area university campuses), April 1 – May 15, 1994.

Conference Papers & Panels (Selected)

Naming the Enemy: Anti-communism in Transnational Perspective, Occidental College, November 30, 2012 (organizer and presenter).

“If Not for the March on Rome, There Would Be No March on Moscow,” American Historical Association, January 7, 2012.

“Books in Conversation: New Directions in Studying the Old and New European Right,” Council for European Studies, Barcelona, Spain, June 26, 2011

“Rising Above Oppression,” The Los Angeles Times Festival of Books, April 24, 2010

Roundtable on William Hitchcock’s The Bitter Road to Freedom Council for European Studies, Montreal, April 17, 2010

“Alexander De Grand and the Fascist Style of Rule,” American Historical Association, January 8, 2010.

“History: Crisis Points,” The Los Angeles Times Festival of Books, April 23, 2009.

“The Defeated Enemy: Fascist Anti-communism in the 1930s,” Social Science History Association, Miami, FL, October 22, 2008.

“The Shifting Politics of Holocaust Memory in Italy,” International Association of Genocide Scholars, Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, July 13, 2007.

Author meets critics panel on Wendy Lower’s Nazi Empire-Building and the Holocaust in Ukraine, Social Science History Association, Minneapolis, MN, November 2, 2006.

“Moving Twentieth-Century Italy from the Periphery to the Center of European History,” American Historical Association, Philadelphia, PA, January 6, 2006.

Roundtable with author on Kristin Monroe’s Hand of Compassion: Rescuers and the Holocaust, Social Science History Association, Portland , OR, November 4, 2005.

“Enemies in An Age of Ideology: Anti-Communism in Italy,” Social Science History Association, Chicago, IL, November 20, 2004.

“Teaching the Holocaust in the 21st Century, Roundtable,” Social Science History Association, Baltimore, MD, November 16, 2003.

“Primo Levi, Roberto Benigni and The Politics of Holocaust Representation,” The Life and Legacy of Primo Levi, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, October 23, 2002.

“Writing on Fascism in the Wake of the Cold War,” American Historical Association, San Francisco, CA, January 5, 2002.

“From Mothers to Goddesses: Representations of Women in Fascist Art,” Women, Gender and the Extreme Right in Europe, University of Cardiff, Wales, July 1, 2001.

“Between Perpetrators and Victims: Film and the Holocaust in Italy,” American Association of Italian Studies, New York, NY, April 12, 2000.

“The Politics of Holocaust Representation: The View from Italy,” Social Science History Association, Fort Worth, TX, November 13, 1999.

“The Americanization of the Holocaust,” Social Science History Association, Chicago, IL, November 22, 1998.

“Bosnia and the Holocaust: The Power of Historical Analogy,” International Genocide Conference, Sacramento, CA, October 23, 1998.

“The Last Film Festival: War, Culture and National Identity in Fascist Italy,” American Association of Italian Studies, Chicago, IL, April 2, 1998.

“Mass Culture Meets High Culture: The Venice Biennale Film Festival,” American Association of Italian Studies, Winston-Salem, NC, February 21, 1997.

“Women and Postwar Reconstruction in Bosnia,” Frontline Feminisms, University of California, Riverside, January 16, 1997.

“Fascism, Tourism and the Fine Arts,” Social Science History Association, New Orleans, LA, October 11, 1996.

“Political Appropriations of Rome,” Lleverhume Trust Conference, University of Bristol, Bristol, England, March 25, 1995

“Gangs and Parties: Contemporary Fascism in Europe,” Tikkun Conference, New York, NY, November 5, 1994.

“The State As Patron: Cultural Politics in Fascist Italy,” International Symposium on Italian Fascism, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, October 25, 1993.

“Historical Analogies: Bosnia and the Holocaust,” Tikkun Conference, New York, NY, April 18, 1993.

“The Circus Maximus and the Creation of a Fascist Theme Park,” College Art Association, Seattle, WA, February 3, 1993.


Modern Europe Since 1914
Modern European Cultural History
History of the Mediterranean
Europe Since the Reformation
European Diplomatic History
Comparative Fascism & Authoritarianism
Fascism, History, and Memory
Art and the State
Culture and Dictatorship in the Twentieth Century
Genocide and the Ethical Crisis of Modernity
The European Revolutionary Tradition
The Great Depression
The Crisis of Interwar Europe, 1914–1945
Modern Italy from the Rise of the National Idea to the Present

Affiliations & Memberships

Columbia University Faculty Seminar on Modern Italy
American Historical Association
Society for Italian Historical Studies
American Association for Italian Studies
Social Science History Association
International Association of Genocide Scholars
Council for European Studies